Authors: L. Fahnestock, M. Randhawa, G. Gill, E. Shirley, R. Smith, J. Bliss, C. Porter and S. Soret
Abstract: Every year, at least one major Listeria monocytogenes (Listeria) outbreak occurs within the United States. If pregnant women are uninformed of possible ramifications of contracting Listeria, the mother and child are at risk for health complications. One possibly effective communication approach to this population regarding prevention and risk is through Listeria Educational Materials (LEM). In order to ascertain the status and effectiveness of currently available LEM for pregnant women, a systematic literature review was conducted. Literature searches were conducted using widely accepted public/private databases. The mesh terms used included “Listeria pregnancy”, “listeria education”, “Listeriosis”, “Listeria pregnancy prevalence” “Listeria monocytogenes”. Articles published within the past 10 years pertaining to educational materials for pregnant women were evaluated. Articles relating to general information of Listeria, were also narrowed to specific characteristics, traits, and origin for exposure. References to Listeria in elderly and immunocompromised individuals were excluded. Four studies involving Listeria interventions including LEM for pregnant women were identified. These studies all concluded a majority of pregnant women were still not provided with sufficient information on infection prevention of Listeria. Most educational materials provided to the women were in the form of pamphlets, and the majority of pregnant women who had heard of Listeria gathered the information through their own research efforts. The current evaluation of the available studies concludes there is inadequate emphasis placed on educational interventions for pregnant women regarding Listeria risk. These interventions concluded more must be done to inform these pregnant women of the dangers of Listeria as well as on the high-risk foods they consume on a daily basis.
Keywords: Listeriosis, Listeria monocytogenes, Listeria education, education, pregnancy