Authors: Hao Wang, Jin-Na Li, Ang Qu, Jing-Jia Liu, Yong Zhao and Jun-Jie Wang
Purpose: To determine the biological effectiveness of single, fractioned and continuous low dose rate irradiation on the human colorectal cancer cell line CL187 in vitro and explore the cellular mechanisms. Materials and Methods: The CL187 cells were exposed to radiation of 6 MV X-ray at a high dose rate of 4Gy/min and 125I seed at a low dose rate of 2.77 cGy/h. Three groups were employed: single dose radiation group (SDR), fractionated dose radiation group (FDR) by 2Gy/f and continuous low dose rate radiation group (CLDR). Four radiation doses 2, 4, 6 and 8Gy were chosen and cells without irradiation as the control. The responses of CL187 cells to distinct modes of radiation were evaluated by the colony-forming assay, cell cycle progression as well as apoptosis analysis. In addition, we detected the expression patterns of DNA-PKcs, Ku70 and Ku80 by Western blotting. Results: The relative biological effect for 125I seeds compared with 6 MV X-ray was 1.42 48hrs after 4Gy irradiation, the difference between proportions of cells at G2/M phase of SDR and CLDR groups were statistically significant (p=0.026), so as the FDR and CLDR groups (p=0.005). 48hrs after 4Gy irradiation, the early apoptotic rate of CLDR group was remarkably higher than SDR and FDR groups (CLDR vs. SDR, p=0.001; CLDR vs. FDR, p=0.02, whereas the late apoptotic rate of CLDR group increased significantly compared with SDR and FDR group (CLDR vs. SDR, p=0.004; CLDR vs. FDR, p=0.007). Moreover, DNA-PKcs and Ku70 expression levels in CLDR-treated cells decreased compared with SDR and FDR groups. Conclusions: Compared with the X-ray high dose rate irradiation, 125I seeds CLDR showed more effective induction of cell apoptosis and G2/M cell cycle arrest. Furthermore, 125I seeds CLDR could impair the DNA repair capability by down-regulating DNA-PKcs and Ku70 expression.
Keywords: 125I seeds, CL187 cell, DNA repair