Authors: Thandolwethu Nomarwayi, Professor Gavin Bradshaw, Dr. Ntsikelelo Breakfast
Since 2004, service delivery protests in South Africa have been underpinned by severe violence, vandalism and police brutality. This article investigates violence during service delivery protests in the post-apartheid regime by focusing in Walmer township, Nelson Mandela Bay Municipality (NMBM) from 2012 to 2015. This study has used frustration-aggression theory and resource mobilization theory to interpret and analyze violence during service delivery protests at local government level. Methodologically, this study has used a mixed methods approach to interpret and analyze both qualitative and quantitative data. The main findings of this study show that there is a strong relationship between violence and lack of service delivery. Moreover, Small Micro-Medium Enterprises (SMMEs) have influenced the escalation of violent protests in Walmer township because of material benefits and personal self-enrichment. At a policy level, this study recommends that public participation should be implemented to reduce violent protests at local government level. The following section focuses on the introduction of this study.
Keywords: violence, service delivery protests, frustrationaggression theory and resource mobilization theory.