DOI: 10.5176/2251-3140_2.2.38

Authors: Chusri Talubmook and Nopparat Buddhakala


Star gooseberry Phyllanthus acidus (L.) Skeels, lead tree Leucaena leucocephala (Lam.) de Wit. and guava Psidium
guajava (L.) are commonly well known plants and have been widely used in folk medicine for the treatment of many diseases in Thailand. Some pharmacological activities of leaf extracts from the plants in animal model of diabetes have been studied. To increase the pharmacological document of the plants, the present study was therefore carried out to investigate hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic properties of leaf extracts from P. acidus, L. leucocephala and P. guajava. The extracts at a dose of 250 mg/kg were administered to streptozotocin (65 mg/kg)- induced diabetic rats orally and daily for eight weeks. Blood glucose level, body weight, hematological values, lipid profiles, blood chemistry, and serum insulin in the rats were examined. Antioxidant activity of the extracts was also assessed by using 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging assay. Moreover, to see whether the extracts have acute toxicity, once oral administration of the extracts at a dose of 1000, 1500 and 2000 mg/kg was performed in healthy rats. The results revealed that the extracts significantly (p<0.05) decreased blood glucose level, total cholesterol (TC), triglyceride, (TG), low density lipoprotein (LDL), blood urea nitrogen (BUN), and creatinine but increased high density lipoprotein (HDL) and serum insulin in the diabetic treated rats. However, hematological values including white blood cell (WBC), red blood cell (RBC), hemoglobin (Hb), hematocrit (Hct) in both normal and diabetic rats were not affected by the extracts. DPPH assay revealed that the leaf extracts from P. acidus, L. leucocephala and P. guajava possessed the antioxidant activity with EC50 values of 232.37+15.27, 296.10+16.40 and 39.40+3.82 μg/ml respectively which was less potent than ascorbic acid (1.48+0.86 μg/ml). Moreover, the extracts at a dose up to 2000 mg/kg did not exhibit sign of acute toxicity as well as mortality of the rats within a period of observation. These findings indicate that the leaf extracts from P. acidus, L. leucocephala and P. guajava possess hypoglycemic and hypolipidemic activities. The activities seem to relate to hyperinsulinemia and antioxidant activities. Utilization of the extracts is safe with LD50>2000 mg/kg. Furthermore, the leaf extract from P. guajava is to be the most effective extract in the study.

Keywords: Phyllanthus acidus, Leucaena leucocephala, Psidium guajava blood glucose, blood chemistry

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