DOI: 10.5176/2251-189X_SEES14.27

Authors: Michael R. Hoffmann, K. Cho, C. Cid, Qu Yan


We have developed a transportable prototype designed for the treatment of raw domestic wastewater, human urine, human feces, and synthetic human waste analogues. After several hours of PV-powered electrochemical treatment, the turbid, black-water influent can be clarified with the elimination of the suspended particles along with the reduction or total elimination of the chemical oxygen demand (COD), total enteric coliform disinfection via in situ reactive chlorine species generation, and the elimination of measurable protein after 3 to 4 hours of PV-powered treatment. Our advanced prototype incorporates additional features such as a residual sludge handling unit, a hydrogen purification and filter system, a closed water reuse We have packaged our second-generation prototypes into modified shipping containers are ready for field testing in remote locations that lack traditional urban infrastructure.

Keywords: Semiconductor Electrochemistry, Photovoltaic Power, Waste Treatment, Sanitation, Sustainability, Water


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